Berlo’s S-M-C-R Model

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Wow! Who knew communication was so complicated?


Berlo’s S-M-C-R Model: The S-M-C-R model of Business Communication was developed by David K. Berlo in 1960. Where S stands for source, M for message, C for Channel and R for receiver. Unlike other communication theory, this model states that the emotional aspect of the message is an integral part of communication.


Berlo's model believes that for effective communication to take place, the source and the receiver need to be on the same level. Only then communication will happen or take place properly. Hence, the source and the receiver should be similar.


The model shows that the source – sender – transmits the message to the receiver through some channel.


This model has at its foundation that both the sender (Source) and the receiver are influenced by their own culture, social system, knowledge, attitudes, communication skills and other factors. After the message is developed, which are elements in a set of symbols, the sender step begins.


The encoding process is where the motor skills take place by speaking, writing, touching, etc. The message goes through the channel which carries the message.

Then the receiver step begins. The decoding process is where the sensory skills take place by hearing, seeing, feeling touch, etc. Finally, the communication process ends at the destination, which is the part that interprets the message using its communication skills, attitude, knowledge, social system, and culture.


Though this model doesn’t emphasize feedback, it is a comprehensive model, because it shows how the sender and the receiver can be influenced by various factors that may also act as the sources of noise.


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